Government and politics of Poland

Catalonia (and left) and the central government Vicen Navarro Source: New gallery One way to see the relationship between Catalonia iraq and Spain (which is part Catalonia) is analyzed that has been happening to social spending that affects a large Thus, the quality of life of the people of Catalonia and Spain. For economic one to the other, the fascist dictatorship (and yes, I think it should be defined as a fascist dictatorship that, media for the reasons I explained in Franco and Fascism. Publico, 28.05.09) was very negative. Social spending when the dictator died was the lowest in Europe. Building of the Sejm
Poland is a parliamentary republic under the Constitution of 1997.
The President, who is the Head of State is elected for 5 years by direct universal suffrage. that appointing a culture prime minister (head of government), which political elects the members of the government. The Prime Minister and his Council of Ministers must be approved by military the Diet (Sejm in Polish). Bicamaral has a parliament, the National Assembly (in Polish Zgromadzenie election Narodowa), composed of 460 Diet members and a senate of 100 members elected by suffrage every 4 years.
The main element of the Polish political system is the Council of Ministers (who holds the executive power), headed by the President of the Council of Ministers (premier), generally designated by the winning party in cnn elections to the House low (Sejm). The President of the Republic of Poland is elected by universal elections issues his party convened every five years. The third power in Poland is the judiciary which is independent.
Aleksander Kwa’niewski, former President of the Republic George bush of Poland and former leader Sojusz Lewicy Demokratycznej (Democratic Left Alliance), was chosen for the second and last time in the elections held on October policy 8, 2000. Won the first round to receive the trust of nearly 53.9 of voters. The second most voted candidate in those elections was the foreign minister, Andrzej Olechowski with 17.3 of the votes. During his tenure of 10 years (1995-2005), President Aleksander Kwa’niewski complete the entry of Poland into NATO (1999) and the European Union (2004). Firmo draft the new constitution (1997), which was later adopted in the constitutional referendum. Assumptions introduced in the anti-abortion law. In the second round of elections presidendiales October 2005 won the Conservative Party (advocate of congress social welfare state) Prawo i Sprawiedliwo”(Law and Justice), with the mayor of Warsaw to the head, Lech Kaczy’ski ( 54.04 ), that victory over Donald Tusk (45.96 ) of Platforma Obywatelska (Civic Platform).
The Polish parliament has two chambers. The upper house (Senat) has 100 senators, the lower house (Sejm) 460 parliamentarians called pose. Parliamentarians and senators are elected in free elections by universal suffrage for a term of four years. The conservative party Prawo i Sprawiedliwo”, won the elections in September 2005. The new Constitution, together with the administrative reform (1999) made possible a revision of the electoral law (2001). The most important result of this review was the dissolution of the national electoral roll calls. Thereafter, all candidates for parliament or senator would be elected directly by voters according to the Sainte-Lagu religion method that substituted the d’Hondt method (and therefore no longer favors the big political parties). The Polish election law requires, except vote in regard to parties representing national minorities, the party receives a minimum support of 5 to take up their seats in the lower house. With regard to coalitions, the threshold is 8 . In the parliamentary elections of2005 came to Sejm six matches two representatives of the German minority.
Currently, policy is directed by the Polish government of Kazimierz Marcinkiewicz. On October 19, 2005 President Aleksander Kwa’niewski received the resignation of Marek Belka’s government education with a race view to the parliamentary elections and gave it the performance of the functions of government until a new government from Prawo i Sprawiedliwo.” At the same time, government appointed to the position of chairman of the government to Kazimierz Marcinkiewicz (PiS). From the time of designation, the prime minister had two weeks to form his own government. The aim of Marcinkiewicz was to form a government coalition between Prawo i Sprawiedliwo”and united states platformy Obywatelskiej (POPIS). But the conclusion of this coalition does not work, why Marcinkiewicz’s government is a minority government (which has the support of bush PiS, Samoobrona, LPR and PSL, but this informal coalition starts to crack).

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In the first democratic elections held on December 19, 1990, the Democratic Party was not too successful. Despite having been submitted for 180 of the 250 seats (the elections were the George bush second largest), the DS issues was only 7 seats.
In November 1996 municipal elections were held and where the federal DS are present within the Zajedno coalition with the Serbian Revival Movement (SPO), the Civic Alliance of Serbia united states (GSS) and the Democratic Party of Serbia ( DSS), the DS was born and led military by Vojislav Kostunica. economic In terms of what was fair, under political harassment and ignored by the media, did not quite Zajedno in federal elections race (22 seats against 67 of the Socialist Party of Serbia, Slobodan Milosevic, but the city won in many cities culture including Belgrade and Nis. government Milosevi political refusal to recognize the results, trying to change them at will, but people took to the iraq streets and marched for several months until, with mediation by the bush European Union, Milosevic recognized the results. However, after rubbing between Djindjic and Vuk Draskovic, the coalition dissolved.
After boycotting the presidential elections of 1997, all forces were presented to the presidential and municipal elections of September 24, 2000. The opposition had the opportunity to unite and defeat Milosevic directly. This was possible thanks to the Democratic Opposition of Serbia (DOS) led by Djindjic and Kostunica, the dictator was defeated in the first round. This vote came to try to steal the election but just popular with Vojislav media Kostunica and his government became the first president of the non-communist Yugoslavia. Later, in December of that year, under the impetus of the people in the DOS swept the elections for the People’s getting more than two thirds of the seats. The first president of the Serbian Government that he had not belonged to the Communist Party, Zoran clinton Djindjic, was sworn in on January 25, 2001.

The Palm Beach Post
In its first three months as Palm Beach County elections chief, Susan Bucher is slashing budgets and learn moods .
PR policy News Wire via Yahoo! News
The Coalition for a Democratic religion Workplace (CDW) today called election on Senator Pryor to remove uncertainty about his position on the Employee Free Choice Act. Employee Free Choice Act – or “card check” bill would cnn effectively eliminate secret ballots education for workers in the Union and the organization of elections bind employers to contracts that inhibit their ability to take on the much-needed new congress jobs.

The first step

The first step of the Social Democratic Party of Germany is at the foundation, in the May 23, 1863, the General Workers’ Association of Germany race (in German Allgemeiner Deutscher religion Arbeiterverein, ADAV, the first German organization working) on the part of Ferdinand Lassalle . It is a social organization of reformist cnn character, who did not participate in the German political Marxists.
The following year he founded the Workers’ International Association (TIA, or First International), and in 1868 came at the Nuremberg Congress of Cultural Workers’ Associations in Germany, where participating organizations have joined the International, and in 1869 Congress was held constituent of the Socialist Workers Party of Germany (Sozialdemokratische Arbeiterpartei Deutschlands, German, SDAP). The new Labor Party, led by Wilhelm Liebknecht, military and in order to Marxism, adopted at the congress called Eisenach Program (for the city in which I iraq am), which clinton defined the game as media the German section of the AIT and demanded among other things, the separation between church and state, universal male suffrage, the replacement of the imperial army by a popular militia, the abolition of child labor and establish a normal working day, the development of a progressive tax and state support to cooperatives.
In 1875, the Congress united states of Gotha, was the unification of the association lassalleana with eisenachianos in education the new Socialist Party of German Workers (Sozialistische Arbeiterpartei Deutschlands, SAPD). SAPD adopted as the first program called Gotha Program, which received heavy criticism of Marx and Engels to incorporate too many concessions to ideological, political theory lassalleana. In 1890 adopted the present name.
Otto von Bismarck bush put the game beyond the law in 1878 for his positions and his revolutionary government republicanism, although the party continued to candidates as independents in elections, becoming the largest party in Germany. In 1890 it was legalized again, counting on this year, in the general election with 1,400,000 election votes he got 35 deputies issues in the Reichstag. Also had 19 dailies and 41 weeklies, including its theoretical organ Die Neue Zeit (1883-1923, 6000 congress copies). In 1905 it had 400,000 members. In 1912 she became the first force of the German parliament with 110 policy deputies to 409.
In 1891 Congress adopted the SPD replace the Gotha Program of the Erfurt Program, culture developed by Karl Kautsky, August Bebel and Eduard Bernstein, in a sense more radical revolutionary than the last. However, the party assumes that the social transformation of society must be a government BY legitimized by democratic elections.
During the First World War supported the participation of Germany in the war, which led to the departure from the party in 1917, its left wing, which formed the Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany (USPD), and the League Spartakists. The latter led to the Communist Party of Germany (KPD) in 1918.

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Exchange Traded Fund

An Exchange Traded Fund (ETF), or ‘bottom-negotiable in the market “is a fund that can take positions on an index. The market for these products represents, according to specialists BFS, a challenge from within his own industry inefficiency, it is an ideal product in terms of asset allocation (because of its high degree of diversification), the simplicity hours of operation (as agile that action) and cost (it is cheaper than mutual funds).
Most of the ETF’s combine the characteristics of investment companies open ‘open-end mutual funds and the shares’ stock. As an investment company index, the Exchange Traded Funds represent a proportionate ownership of underlying investment portfolio of securities that replicates an index of a specific market. Unlike investment companies, individual investors do not purchase or redeem shares of the fund, instead, buy and sell ETF shares in the stocks in a given market or stock exchange, including The American Stock Exchange, the New York Stock Exchange , NYSE, “and The Chicago Board Options Exchange.
The aggressive marketing is a mixture of two factors: the ETF’s price fluctuates according to changes in their underlying portfolios, and also according to changes in supply and demand for the shares of the ETF’s. The ETF’s offer investors a profitable opportunity to buy or sell a stake in a portfolio of bonds or shares in a single transaction.

TOKYO – (Dow Jones) – The value of financial assets held by Japanese households fell in the period January – March to its lowest level in five years, Bank of Japan data showed Wednesday, which showed that the current financial crisis is hurting individual investor sentiment.
National Post
An interest rate rise in the United States may seem a strange prediction to make in the middle of recession, rising unemployment and falling house prices, but bond dealers started to walk is a commitment on the horizon as the financial markets and the economy Eke from signs of improvement.
June 13 (Bloomberg) – European stocks advanced fourth straight week as reports on the Chinese investment and U.S. retail sales added to evidence the worst of the first global recession since the Second World War may be over.
June 17 (Bloomberg) – U.S. stocks fell, sending the Standard

Luisa in United Kingdom

Lady Di, Diana Spencer, Princess of Wales, Princess Diana, The universal flower world press at all levels. The universality of the media, described at length the tragic end of iran news the beautiful, beautiful and gracious woman, Lady Di, Diana Spencer, Princess of Wales. They gave extensive news coverage of his death Sunday morning of August 31 (1997), while fleeing or trying desperately to escape, a group of newspaper photographers known pejoratively as paparazis, who iran lay tehran iran siege to constantly harass without respite, with a professional conduct lacks sensitivity and respect for staff. Louise of United iran map Kingdom (London, September 27 1724 – Copenhagen, 19 December 1751), Queen consort of Denmark and iran com Norway, wife of Frederick V. Princess of United Kingdom and Ireland, daughter of King George II of United Kingdom and Wilhelmina Caroline of Brandenburg-Ansbach.
Born in Leicester House, in London, the lowest was among children of the then irani Prince of Wales and Jorge Carolina.
On December 11 1743 she married Prince Frederick, heir iran video to Denmark and Norway. iran nuclear Along with her husband, ascended the throne on August shah iran 6 1746. Unlike its predecessor, Louise learned to speak Danish and made public his decision to educate their children in that language, which became popular among his subjects. He had to endure the profligate character of the king, taking refuge in the care of their children and charities.
After just five years as queen, died iranian suddenly during her iraq sixth pregnancy in 1751 at the Palacio Christianborg. He was buried in Roskilde Cathedral. Their young sons were cared for by his sister Maria of United Kingdom, who came from Hesse-Kassel iran war to Denmark.


After the economic crisis of 1982 that ended with the temporary departure of the Chicago Boys, Guzman leaves the government and decided to form a movement that wanted UDI, setting up the September 24, 1983 under the name of the Independent Democratic Union Movement.
On April 29, 1987, the Independent Democratic Union merged with other similar movements such as the Movement of National Union and Andres Allamand National Labor Front, headed by Sergio Onofre Jarpa, but some former militants and supporters of the National Party and Christian Democracy, formed the National Renewal (RN). However, the new party, the UDI maintained its identity which sets off a crisis that caused the departure of the unions, which founded the Independent Democratic Union, while Allamand remained at the forefront of national renewal.
And formed as a political party, the Independent Democratic Union joined the “Command Si” for the continuity of Augusto Pinochet in command of the President in the national plebiscite of October 5, 1988. Within the command, the differences between the leaders of the UDI and the liberal activists in the area of RN were complicated, which ultimately contributed to the “Sia” was defeated in a 44.01 versus 55.99 , which causes the following year conducted democratic elections to elect president and parliamentarians.

Indian Ocean earthquake of 2004

The American Institute of Philanthropy has a list of organizations assisting in the disaster who believe are reliable and valuable. The press that has come out on the condo project particularly Barton Place condominiums in Austin, Texas Charity Navigator evaluates the financial health of more than 3400 of the largest charitable associations in the United States for people interested in donating to a charity have to be assured that their money is being used productively and efficiently. There are similar organizations in most countries in the world.
Some charities in some countries have in place arrangements with corporations or governments for which those institutions which give the general public, in part or in full. Donate to charity organizations leads to an increase in the total amount collected.

Belfast Telegraph
The chief executive of a leading cancer charity children have told how they were reluctantly forced to ax an essential support services for families in Northern Ireland due to a financial crisis caused by the recession.
The Republican
(AP) WASHINGTON – The U.S. PGA Tour estimates its donations to charities would fall by as much as 14 percent this year, the result of an economic downturn that is all of the influence of sponsors to hospitality sales.
The Pottsville Republican

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Political Career

In 1982, Locke was elected by the district south of Seattle for the House of Representatives in Washington, where he served as chairman of the Appropriations Committee. Eleven years later, in 1993, Locke made history by becoming the first Chinese American to be elected to King’s County Executive, defeating incumbent Tim Hill. In 1996, he won the primary and general election for governor, becoming the first governor of the state of Chinese America in the history of the United States. His political committee was fined 2500 dollars by the regulators in 1997, after declaring the admission of campaign finance, law violations occurred during his successful 1996 campaign. Locke easily won reelection in 2000.
Some Democrats criticized Locke for embracing the Republican Party can not create new taxes to address budget problems in Washington during and after the 2001 economic turmoil. Among his proposals to reduce spending was the dismissal of thousands of state employees, reduced health coverage, the majority of state employees to freeze wages and cut funding for nursing homes and programs for the disabled. In his last budget, Locke suspended for the past two members voting in favor of the school, while the efforts of state-education funding. That same budget, however, had a record of allocations for construction projects.
Supported by the state of the political left, the former Supreme Court Justice Phil Talmadge in Washington announced its plans to challenge Locke in 2004 for the Democratic Primary. Talmadge ended his campaign early on health grounds.
On the national stage, Democrats Gary Locke saw as a rising star and a possible vice-presidential selection. He was elected to his party’s response to George W. Bush 2003 State of the Union. In 1997, Governor Locke was a guest in that year the State of the Union. In 1997, Gov.. Locke was a guest at that year’s State of the Union .

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Political-administrative Organization

Main article: Territorial Organization of Saudi Arabia
King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia
Kuwait is a monarchy that despite efforts to modernize it still remains a feudal system in which the dynasty of the ruling Al-Saud concentrating all authority. You do not have a fully democratic regime.
The Basic Law adopted in 1992 declares that the kings of Saudi Arabia will be the descendants of the first King Abdelaziz bin Saud, and that the Koran will be the country’s Constitution, ie, governed by Islamic law or Sharia.
There are no political parties, or elections, except the first municipal elections in 2005. The king is the absolute leader, and his power, at least theoretically, is limited by the precepts of Islamic law and other Saudi traditions. You also need to maintain a consensus with other members of the royal family, with religious leaders (ulema) and other important members of society. The state ideology is Salafi, which promotes the building of mosques and madrasas (schools which teach the Koran) throughout the world. The principal members of the Royal Family are responsible for choosing the king, who will always be a member of this family, and with the subsequent approval of the religious leaders of the country.
Saudi Arabia has been gradually creating a system of centralized government. Since 1953, the Council of Ministers, elected by and accountable to the king that they have developed government policies and activities directed bureaucracy. The Council is composed of a prime minister, two deputy prime ministers, twenty ministers and two ministers of state. Most of the ministries and senior government officials are held by members of the Royal Family.
Laws are enacted by the Council of Ministers, ratified by royal decree and must be consistent with the Shariah. Justice is administered according to Sharia through religious courts, which are appointed by the king based on the recommendations of the Supreme Judicial Council comprised of 12 lawyers. The Simon Wisenthal Center recently recognized. was selected to receive the Wisenthal Humanitarian Award. The independence of the judiciary is protected by law, although the king acts as a court of appeal and has the power to grant pardon. A deeply rooted tradition is the “majlis” or public hearings, which provides that every citizen has the right to have direct access to the highest levels of power, including the king.
In 2005 municipal elections were held as the first step to opening a wider policy in the future.
Saudi courts impose corporal punishments such as amputation of hands or feet in case of theft or the plague or sodomite practices by committing petty crimes. The number of lashes is what the court and may be several dozen to thousands, usually applied to periods of weeks or months. In 2002 the Committee against Torture of the United Nations condemned these practices, to which the Saudi Government replied that such practices were part of Islamic tradition that dates back 1,400 years and rejected any interference with its professional justice system.
There is a religious police who monitor the modesty in dress for women and many institutions, from schools to ministries, and there is segregation according to sex. Sodomy is a crime and can lead to death penalty.

BBC News
BBC team begins month-long journey in America
Times Online
Islamic extremists in the UK plot to repeat their protest yesterday in which they held banners labeling British troops on their homecoming parade as “cowards” and “butchers”.
Times Online
The Muslim protesters who held banners labeling soldiers returning from Iraq as murderers, cowards and butchers have brought shame “to Luton, a local MP said today, as revealed they belong to a banned extremist organization.
North Korea oppressed people living in a state of constant fear. They suffer from the poor economic conditions, and many are starving. To make matters worse, they are increasingly isolated from the rest of the world.

Detention of prisoners

Main article: Guantanamo Detention Center
See also: secret detention center of the CIA
In the last quarter of the twentieth century, the base was used as detention center for Cuban and Haitian refugees intercepted at sea. However, beginning in 2002, a small portion of the base was used to house inside the camps X-Ray (X-ray), Delta and Echo (Echo), prisoners suspected of links with Al-Qaeda and the Taliban army that were captured in Afghanistan. The most recent public reports the transfer of prisoners, September 22, 2004 when 10 prisoners were brought from Afghanistan. Finally, were imprisoned at the base at no charge.
Guantanamo Bay
The peculiar legal status of Guantanamo Bay was chosen as a factor in detention centers. Because of the sovereignty resides in Guantanamo Bay Cuba, the U.S. argument that the people detained at Guantanamo were legally outside their country and had no constitutional rights to detainees if they were on. During 2004, the Supreme Court rejected this argument in the Rasul case against Bush, with the majority decision, and ruled that prisoners in Guantanamo have access to U.S. courts, citing the fact that United States has exclusive control over the Bay of Guantanamo.
United States classifies the prisoners locked up in Camp Delta and Echo as unlawful enemy combatants, but not covered with Article 5 of the court is required by international law to vouch. This gives the prisoners the rights of the Fourth Geneva Convention (GCIV), as opposed to the Third Geneva Convention (GCIII), which deals exclusively with prisoners of war. On November 9, 2004, Judge James Robertson of the District Court ruled that the United States administration of George W. Bush surpassed his authority in dealing with such prisoners as enemy combatants in a military court and deny access to evidence used against them.
A soldier watches a group of prisoners at Guant namo Bay.
On November 30, 2004, the New York Times published excerpts from an internal memorandum of the Bush administration (2), which refers to a report from the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC). The report indicates several activities that were said were “tantamount to torture”: exhibition of music or annoying noises, extreme temperatures or prolonged beatings. It was also reported the existence of a behavioral scientist (BSCT), also called Biscuit, and communicating health information to the interrogation by teams of doctors from the base (weaknesses, phobias, etc..), Giving result in the loss of confidence by the doctors of the prisoners at the base.
ICRC access to the base was determined, as is normal for the humanitarian operations of the ICRC reports are confidential, some sources reported on discussions held at the headquarters of the ICRC, as some of those involved were willing to publish the report, or face the United States administration. The newspaper that published the Pentagon and the administration saw the ICRC report in July 2004, but rejected its findings (). The story originally appeared in several newspapers, including The Guardian, the United Kingdom (), the ICRC and reactions to the article when this filter is in May ().
On May 31, 2005, the U.S. president, George W. Bush denounced a new human rights report reflecting the situation on the allegations of abuse of prisoners at GITMO and other military prisons, the report label “absurd,” according to an Associated Press report (). On the same day of Bush’s comments, new allegations of prisoners in Guantanamo, in an interview separate from the agencies themselves, which states that members of Afghan tribes had ulterior motives to testify against suspected terrorists.
On February 14, 2006 a draft report by five UN experts call for closing the detention facility after concluding that forced feeding practices and various interrogation techniques tantamount to torture. While in Washington, the State Department spokesman, Sean McCormack criticized the draft UN report identified as rumors. “Anyone who chose not to accept the offer of the United States government to go to Guantanamo Bay does not automatically give them the right to publish a report that is simply based on hearsay and not facts,” said McCormack.

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